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Blood Pressure Monitoring

What is Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is a serious health issue that affects nearly 40% to 50% of the population.

Blood is a fluid connective tissue that is transported to all parts of our body via arteries. It is essential in supplying blood to organs.

The force of blood against the arteries is referred to as blood pressure. Individuals should keep their blood pressure between 90 and 120 mm Hg / 60 and 80 mm Hg. Blood pressure is represented by two numbers, which is systolic and diastolic pressure.

Types of Blood Pressure

1. Systolic Blood Pressure.
Systolic blood pressure should be between 90 and 120 mm Hg.
2. Diastolic Blood Pressure.
Diastolic blood pressure should be between 60 and 80 mm Hg.
TypesSystolic blood pressureDiastolic blood pressure
DefinitionWhen the heart beats, pressure is exerted.The pressure is exerted on the artery walls when the heart muscles relax between two beats.
Normal RangeIn infants - 95mmHg. Age 6 to 9- 100 mmHg.In adults - 90-120 mmHg. In infants - 65 mm Hg. Age 6 to 9 - 65 mmHg.In adults - 60-80 mmHg.
Ventricles of the HeartVentricles contractVentricles are relaxed
Reading of Blood PressureThe systolic pressure is highThe diastolic pressure is low
Blood pressure inside the arteriesMaximumMinimum
Blood vesselsContractsRelaxed

Monitoring Your Blood Pressure at Home

There are two alternative technologies for measuring out-of-office blood pressure.

  • Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is a self-monitoring tool that is recommended by doctors and can be implemented into the care of patients with hypertension.

  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) devices are worn by patients for a 24-hour period and are considered the gold standard for BP measurement. ABPM monitors are expensive and, while useful for diagnosing hypertension, are impractical for long-term blood pressure monitoring.

Types Of Blood Pressure Monitors

  • Digital Blood Pressure Monitors
  • Also known as an electronic blood pressure monitor or an automatic blood pressure monitor. These are equipped with wrist and arm cuffs. However, arm cuff digital monitors are thought to be more precise than wrist monitors. They include a display monitor that shows the results. More of these had only one simple button. Wrap the cuff around your wrist and press the button; that's all there is to it. The only disadvantage is that they are more expensive and, in some cases, do not provide accurate results if the cuff is not wrapped properly. When working with a digital monitor, it is much better to take 2-3 readings.
  • Upper Arm Blood Pressure Monitor
  • An upper arm blood pressure monitor is the most common type of home BP monitor that is recommended for the most consistency and accuracy.
    These have an inflatable cuff that wraps around your upper arm and reads your blood pressure from your brachial artery.
  • Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor
  • Wrist blood pressure monitors attach to your wrist and read your blood pressure. A wrist blood pressure monitor can be accurate, but only if used exactly as directed in the user's manual.
    They are more comfortable to wear, but they are extremely sensitive to your body position and the device's attachment to your wrist.
    Your arm and wrist must be at heart level for an accurate reading, and in many cases, blood pressure measurements taken from the wrist are usually higher than those taken from your upper arm, and it is less accurate.
    It is generally recommended for you to get an apparatus which will measure blood pressure in your upper arm,wrist.
  • Finger Blood Pressure Monitor
  • This is a small, noninvasive electronic device that is very useful for those of you who need to monitor your blood pressure at home on a regular basis. Pregnant women are a good example.
    On a daily basis, you can quickly use the device to keep a close eye on your blood pressure levels. This allows you to quickly determine if they are suffering from hypertension caused by pregnancy.
  • Wireless Blood Pressure Monitoring Using Bluetooth
  • Bluetooth technology is used to operate this blood pressure monitor. To begin taking a reading, you place the gadget on your arm and use an app loaded into your Apple or Android smartphone or tablet device.
    It will send systolic, diastolic, and pulse rate measurements to your connected smartphone, which you may view and record. The fact that a record of your reading is preserved on a safe and backed-up database is also a plus. This means you can use any computer or device with an internet connection to access the information.

Benefits of Blood Pressure Monitors

  • Better blood pressure control
  • HBPM is also less expensive and easier to use than 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) for diagnosing white-coat hypertension and predicting cardiovascular risk.
  • Avoids white-coat reaction to BP measurement by taking repeated readings over a long period of time
  • Reproducible. HBPM allows for a greater number of readings, more reproducible readings than office readings, and better correlations with target organ damage metrics.
  • Accurately predicts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when compared to office blood pressure. HBPM is more accurate than office blood pressure in predicting CV and stroke morbidity and mortality. HBPM promotes patient-centered treatment while also improving blood pressure control and patient outcomes.
  • Can diagnose white-coat and masked hypertension. The white-coat effect, defined as elevated office blood pressure reading and low home blood pressure reading, which can appear as incredibly high clinic readings. In primary care settings, the use of automated blood pressure measurements has significantly reduced this effect. The opposite phenomenon, which is normal clinic BP and elevated out-of-clinic BP, is known as masked hypertension and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular risk.
  • Compliance and Improvement of Blood Pressure Control. Implementing HBPM into routine care for patients with uncontrolled hypertension may improve blood pressure control.
  • Enables patients to gain a better understanding of hypertension management. It's also been suggested that if patients can grasp their own blood pressure readings and understand how treatment affects them, they'll be more ready to stick to medical therapy in the long run, even if it doesn't seem to be helping them feel better.
  • Tele-monitoring allows healthcare professionals to monitor patients remotely. HBPM is most effective when combined with input from a healthcare professional, such as Tele-monitoring, in which readings taken at home are instantly relayed to a primary healthcare professional who can lead treatment along a specified algorithm in such a way that readings collected more directly influence treatment. Tele-monitoring eliminates the need for the patient to travel and saves time for the healthcare team.
  • Detects increased blood pressure variability
  • It’s affordable. BP monitoring is simpler to implement and requires less labour and capital investment than ABPM in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.


  • It has been observed that some devices are inaccurate.
  • Cuff placement can affect accuracy
  • May cause anxiety and excessive monitoring;
  • Risk of patients changing their treatment based on casual home measurements taken without the guidance of a doctor
  • Inadequate nocturnal recording
  • Many countries' insurance companies have yet to reimburse them.

Suggestions for Using Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

If you're using HBPM to confirm a hypertension diagnosis, make sure you:

  • Two consecutive readings are taken with the person seated, at least 1 minute apart
  • Blood pressure is recorded twice a day, ideally in the morning and evening.
  • BP is recorded for at least 4 days, ideally for 7 days.
The first day's measurements should be discarded, and the average value of the other days should be utilised instead.
Auscultatory devices (mercury, aneroid, or other) are not suggested for HBPM except in exceptional circumstances, for example, patients with arrhythmias who have been trained in auscultatory BP monitoring.
Oscillometric monitors are accurate, dependable, simple to operate, and reasonably inexpensive.

How to use a home monitor to check your blood pressure at home

  • Follow the manufacturer's directions for your monitor. Make sure the cuff is wrapped around your arm as directed in the instructions.
  • Adjust the arm cuff so that it is just above your elbow. The cuff should be around 2cm above your elbow to ensure that it can detect the artery immediately beneath the skin in your arm.
  • While taking your reading, be still and quiet. Moving, chewing, talking, and laughing can all have an impact on your reading ability. Make sure you're not crossing your legs, as this will also increase your reading.
  • Take two or three readings, one to two minutes apart, each time. If your first reading is significantly higher than your second, disregard it and take a third reading. You can calculate the average once you have two or three readings.
  • Keeping track of your measurements is a good idea. All of your readings should be saved in the memory of your monitor, on your computer or phone, or on paper, depending on your preference.
  • Takedown the words precisely as they appear on the screen. Don't take your measurements when wearing clothes.

Normal and Elevated ranges of Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure Category Systolic mmHg (upper number) Diastolic mm Hg (lower number)
Normal Less than 120 Less than 80
Elevated 120-129 Less than 80
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Stage 1 130-13980-89
High Blood Pressure (hypertension) Stage 2140 or Higher90 or Higher
Hypersensitive Crisis Higher than 180 Higher than 120

A medical expert must validate a diagnosis of high blood pressure. Any very low blood pressure results should be evaluated by a doctor.

Before Taking a Measurement Consider the following steps

Follow these guidelines to guarantee a reliable reading:

  • For 30 minutes before taking a measurement, refrain from eating, drinking alcohol, smoking, exercising, or bathing. Before taking the measurement, you should rest for at least 15 minutes.
  • Stress elevates blood pressure. Measurements should be avoided during stressful situations.
  • Measurements should be performed in a quiet location.
  • Take off any clothing that is too tight on your left arm.
  • Take a seat in a chair and place your feet flat on the floor. Place your left arm on the table so that the cuff is level with your heart.
  • During the measurement, remain still and do not speak.
  • Allow at least 2-3 minutes between measurements. The waiting period allows the arteries to return to their previous state before taking the blood pressure reading. Depending on your individual physiological characteristics, you may need to increase the wait time.
  • Maintain a record of your blood pressure and pulse readings for your doctor. A single reading does not provide an accurate representation of your true blood pressure. Several readings must be taken and recorded over a period of time. For consistency, try to take your blood pressure at the same time every day.

What to do when you get a high blood pressure reading?

  • A single high reading is not cause for immediate concern. If you get a reading that is slightly or moderately higher than normal, take your blood pressure again and consult your doctor to see if there is a health concern or if there are any problems with your monitor.
  • If your blood pressure suddenly rises above 180/120 mm Hg, wait five minutes before testing again. If your readings remain abnormally high, contact your doctor right away. You could be in the middle of a hypertensive crisis.
  • If your blood pressure is higher than 180/120 mm Hg and you are experiencing symptoms of possible organ damage such as chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, numbness, weakness, change in vision, or difficulty speaking, don't wait for it to go down on its own.
  • How to Maintain your Blood Pressure?

    If you already have high blood pressure (or are at risk), your doctor may prescribe medications, as well as important lifestyle changes such as regular physical activity or dietary changes, to help you control your blood pressure.

  • Lifestyle Changes. Work with your doctor to determine the best lifestyle changes for you. Regular physical activity, increasing the amount of potassium in your diet, and limiting your use of tobacco, alcohol, and salt are all examples of minor changes.
  • Medication. Medications are used to treat high blood pressure. Take all medications exactly as prescribed by your doctor and pharmacist. Always consult your doctor before discontinuing any medication.
  • Home blood pressure monitoring may be especially useful for:

  • People who are starting high blood pressure treatment to see how effective it is.
  • Individuals who require closer monitoring, particularly those with risk factors for high blood pressure or conditions related to high blood pressure.
  • Pregnant women who are suffering from pregnancy-induced hypertension or preeclampsia.
  • Evaluating possibly incorrect readings, such as those from people who only get high blood pressure readings at the doctor's office ("white coat" hypertension). People who have high blood pressure readings solely at home and not at the doctor's office ("masked" hypertension).
  • People with atrial fibrillation or other arrhythmias may not be ideal candidates for home monitoring because electronic blood pressure monitors may not be accurate enough. Request your doctor to prescribe a monitoring approach that is appropriate for you.
  • Keeping a record of your Blood Pressure Regularly

    Keeping a record will allow you and your doctor to see how your blood pressure is responding to treatments and lifestyle changes, as well as if your treatment needs to be changed. Bring your record with you to your appointments.

    It's a good idea to keep a record of your blood pressure readings. Make a list of all your readings, even the ones you don't include in your average. Make a note of the time and date, as well as the time you took your blood pressure medication. It's also a good idea to keep track of anything that may have influenced your blood pressure, such as changes in treatment, episodes of illness, or symptoms you were experiencing at the time, such as headaches or dizziness.

    What to Consider when Purchasing a Blood Pressure Monitor?

  • A cuff-style, automatic bicep (upper-arm) monitor is preferable.
  • Wrist and finger monitors are not recommended because their readings are less reliable.
  • Select a tested and validated monitor. If you are unsure, consult your doctor or pharmacist.
  • When purchasing a blood pressure monitor for a senior, pregnant woman, or child, ensure that it has been validated for these conditions.
  • Make sure the cuff fits properly — measure around your upper arm and select a monitor that comes with the appropriate size cuff.
  • Size matters: When choosing a blood pressure monitor, the size of the cuff is the most important factor to consider. The size is determined by the circumference of your upper arm. A cuff that does not fit properly on your arm may provide you with inaccurate readings.
  • Choose arm cuffs over wrist cuffs. A monitor with an automated cuff that wraps over your upper arm is recommended. It is called brachial blood pressure monitor. If you're under 50, wrist cuffs are probably fine.
  • Avoid smart apps. There are plenty of blood pressure measurement apps for your smartphone if you browse in any app store. These are ineffective and have not been thoroughly examined.
    Certain apps claim to be able to monitor your blood pressure using pulse wave velocity, which involves looking at the waveform in your finger's artery. However, these are frequently incorrect.
  • Check for accuracy. Most drugstore or online monitors are acceptable, but you can take it to your doctor's office and compare it to the office monitor. If your cuff's systolic blood pressure (top number) is within 10 points of the monitor, it's usually accurate.
    The average lifespan of a home blood pressure machine is two to three years. After that, go to your doctor's office once a year to double-check if it's still accurate.
  • Take three measurements: One additional feature to consider to help improve the accuracy of a monitor is taking three measurements automatically.
    This is something that some monitors do every time you check your blood pressure. They take an initial reading, then wait 30 to 60 seconds before taking a second reading, then wait another 30 to 60 seconds before taking a final measurement. This is useful since it takes the average of your three measurements, which is more likely to reflect your true blood pressure than just the first figure.
  • Care and Maintenance of Blood Pressure Monitors

    Follow the steps below to keep your digital blood pressure monitor in good working order and protect it from damage:

  • Do not push the arm cuff or air tubing to bend. Do not fold the paper too tightly.
  • Use a gentle dry towel to clean the monitor.
  • No abrasive or volatile cleaners should be used.
  • Never try to clean the cuff.
  • Submerge neither the device nor any of its components in water.
  • Avoid exposing the monitor to extremes of heat or cold, humidity, or direct sunlight.
  • Keep the device and its parts in a clean, safe place.
  • Avoid causing strong shocks to the monitor, such as dropping it on the floor.
  • If the unit will not be used for three months or more, remove the batteries. Whenever possible, replace all of the batteries at the same time.
  • Follow the instructions in the manual when using the unit.
  • Only use parts and accessories that have been approved by the manufacturer.
  • Top 10 Blood Pressure Monitors in India

    Dr Morepen Blood Pressure Monitor BP02

  • The Dr Morepen Blood Pressure Monitor BP02 uses an oscillometric approach to precisely monitor blood pressure.
  • Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure can be measured with this product.
  • With a controlled inflation measure, this product was designed with the most delicate of patients in mind.
  • Its one-touch technology allows for quick and accurate self-testing; the LCD panel only adds to the ease of use by displaying the blood pressure at precise levels.
  • It has the ability to measure up to 60 sets of data, allowing you to keep track of previous measurements.
  • AccuSure TD Automatic Blood Pressure Monitoring System

  • It has a huge LCD display that allows customers to conveniently check their blood pressure.
  • The AccuSure TD Automatic Blood Pressure Monitoring System includes a high-precision strain gauge sensor system that ensures that results are not only accurate, but also consistent.
  • It has a one-touch operating system that simplifies handling and usage
  • Its memory system can measure and store up to 60 records for storing a history of blood pressure measurements
  • It has an USB port for transferring data to a PC. Along with the BP Machine, you can purchase a power adaptor.
  • AccuSure TD Automatic Blood Pressure Monitoring System aids in its early identification of arrhythmia.
  • RossMax CH115F Blood Pressure Monitor

  • It includes an extra-large LCD panel for easy blood pressure monitoring.
  • It has a high-precision strain gauge sensor system that not only makes readings more exact, but does so consistently
  • It has a one-touch operation system that simplifies handling and usage.
  • Its memory system can measure and record up to 60 recordings, allowing you to keep track of your blood pressure readings.
  • When it comes to accessories, it has a USB port that can be used to send data to a computer. Along with the BP Machine, you can purchase a power adaptor.
  • AccuSure TD Automatic Blood Pressure Monitoring System aids in its early identification of arrhythmia.
  • Rossmax X 5 Blood Pressure Monitor

  • When compared to its competitors, this BP monitor is by far the most technologically advanced, thanks to its PARR (Pulse Arrhythmia) technology.
  • It also includes a hypertension indicating gauge, which is critical in the case of fat patients because it not only saves time, but also gives them a fair warning and raises their level of caution.
  • It includes a 120-data-collection system that allows for additional data storing. Furthermore, each BP measurement is based on an average of three recordings, ensuring that BP measurements are as accurate as possible.
  • It is technologically advanced enough to detect arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, and premature contractions; it also comes with a comprehensive instruction manual and accessories like zippers and carry bags to make mobility easier.